Entanglement for atom interferometers

verfasst von
Alexander Idel
betreut von
Carsten Klempt

Quantum Sensors, like atom interferometers (AI), can be employed for high-precision measurements of inertial forces, including their application as gravimeters, gradiometers, accelerometers, and gyroscopes. Their measurement principle relies on ultracold atoms that are prepared in quantum-mechanical superposition states in external degrees of freedom. These states can be prepared by a momentum transfer of a Raman laser. Then the superposition state senses the effect of an inertial force, which induce a corresponding relative phase. The phase is read out by a final coupling which converts the interferometric phase into a atom number difference between the two states. The difference provides an estimate of the interferometric phase and the corresponding quantity of interest. The quantum mechanical noise of the atomic ensemble cause a fundamental uncertainty of this estimation, which I analyze for generic AIs. For small atomic densities, the quantum phase noise of the ensemble limits the interferometric sensitivity. For large densities, quantum number fluctuations generate density fluctuations, which generates phase noise. I show that these two competing effects result in an optimal atom number with a maximal interferometer resolution. Squeezed atomic samples allow for a reduction of the quantum noise of one quantity at the expense of an increased noise along of a conjugate quantity. Phase and number are such quantities which obey to a variant of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Neither phase nor number squeezing can improve the maximal interferometer resolution. As one main result of this thesis, I show how an optimal squeezing in between number and phase squeezing, allows for a fundamental improvement. I evaluate possible experimental paths to implement the proposed protocol. Concepts for a squeezing-enhanced operation of external-degree AIs have not yet been demonstrated. I propose and implement an atomic gravimeter, which is designed to accept spin-squeezed atomic states as input states. The interferometer is designed such that the interferometer couplings are performed in spin space, while the phase accumulation is performed in momentum states. For this interferometer, the squeezed input can be directly obtained from spin dynamics in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. The main noise contributions in the experiment are analyzed, which results in a factor of 84 above the relevant quantum limit, preventing a squeezing enhancement so far. I outline a suppression of the main noise source, uncontrolled AC Stark shift on the squeezed mode and propose future important applications, including test of spontaneous collapse theories and an improvement of large-scale, high-precision gradiometers.

Institut für Quantenoptik
QUEST Leibniz Forschungsschule
Anzahl der Seiten
Elektronische Version(en)
https://doi.org/10.15488/11060 (Zugang: Offen)

Details im Forschungsportal „Research@Leibniz University“