Robust high fidelity microwave near-field entangling quantum logic gate

verfasst von
Giorgio Zarantonello
betreut von
Christian Ospelkaus

Trapped ions, together with superconducting qubits, are one of the two leading hardware platforms for scalable quantum information processing. The development of quantum computers represents a major technological breakthrough comparable to the introduction of classical computing. The benefits of this technology are currently limited by the technical capability to perform high fidelity entangling operations on the qubits. When gate fidelities surpass the fault-tolerance threshold it becomes possible, through error correction, to increase the system size to an arbitrary number of qubits. In this cumulative thesis we address some of the issues in the scalability of the trapped-ion quantum computer based on microwave near-fields. In this approach, gate operations on one or multiple ions are driven by an oscillating magnetic field generated by a current flowing through a conductor. In the first part of this work we discuss the design of traps toward the implementation of large scale systems. We introduce the basic design of a surface-electrode ion trap with embedded microwave conductors. The oscillating magnetic field required to perform the operations is generated by a single optimized conductor. We discuss the simulation and characterization of the magnetic field pattern, which is fixed by the microwave conductor design. In addition, we demonstrate the capability to simulate, fabricate and characterize a multilayer surface ion trap. Multilayer traps are a key aspect for scalability since they are necessary to achieve large system sizes, with many `ion registers', where the registers are interconnected by physically transporting ions between them. In the second part of this thesis we demonstrate the implementation of a two-qubit entangling gate and we explore the possibilities offered by quantum control methods to improve its fidelity. We perform an entangling gate on two 9Be+ ions and measure a Bell state fidelity of 98.2(1.2)%. Error characterization shows that the gate result is limited by technical issues connected to the ions' motional states. To reduce these errors we apply amplitude modulation of the gate microwave drive. After stabilization of the ions' radial modes, we obtain an amplitude modulated gate with infidelity in the 10^-3 range. The result is confirmed by analyzing the data using three different methods. Using additional dynamic decoupling techniques, these results could bring microwave near-field gates past the fault-tolerance threshold.

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